Covid-19对化学品和材料工业的药物包装的影响

Covid-19对制药行业的矛盾缺乏影响

  • 药物
  • 4月14日,2021年

Covid-19对制药行业的矛盾缺乏影响

概述

对制药行业的影响

COVID-19大流行提出了几种challenges in front of different types of industries which have badly impacted the worldwide economy. The lockdown triggered due to continuous pandemic has led to the disruption of manufacturing and supply activities which has jolted the pharmaceutical sectors among others. Larger players having deeper pockets became able to compensate themselves under such pandemic situations however the smaller companies fall under the stress due to lack of sufficient capital, source of income, and ban on import-export activities among several other factors.

Moreover, vigorous research activities conducted by the制药球员影响了提高另一个制药市场增长所需的研发活动。

COVID-19 Impacts on Adrenal Gland

COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has been reported not only to affect the major respiratory parts but also affects the other body organs and hinders the body’s metabolic process which leads to life-threatening diseases.

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is produced and secreted by theanterior pituitary gland并且也被称为血清Acth,皮质培训蛋白等。ACTH负责维持由肾上腺调节的皮质激素水平。Acth生产不足导致肾上腺发生故障和垂体肿瘤。据报道,acth的产量减少,导致肾上腺功能不全,导致恶心,厌食,体重减轻。

The below table demonstrates the amount of different cellular molecules in normal person and person suffering from adrenal insufficiency.

表:1肾上腺充足患者的实验室发现与那些肾上腺功能不全的人

临床/实验室数据

总计总计

Adrenal Sufficiency

Adrenal Insufficiency

基线血清皮质醇水平(MMOL / L),MD(IQR)

39.8.0

47.3..0

25.5..0

注射后血清皮质醇水平(MMOL / L),MD(IQR)

537.0

606.0

42.5..5

Δ Serum Cortisol Levels (mmol/L) M±SD

147.3±122.7

150.2±117.0

142.1±142.1.

钠(Mmol / L),MD(IQR)

135..0

135..0

137.0

Potassium (mmol/L), M± SD

3.99±0.77

6..0 ± 2.9

5..5 ± 1.8

Fasting serum Glucose (mmol/L), MD (IQR)

5.1(4.6,6.1)

5..5 (4.7, 6.4)

4..9 (4.4, 5.5)

CD4计数MD(IQR)

187.0

(42.0,565.0)

125.5

(29.0, 456.0)

197.0

(44.0, 713.0)

Lipoarabinomannan(LAM),MD(IQR)

1.0

(1.0, 1.0)

1.0

(1.0, 1.0)

1.0

(1.0, 1.0)

GeneXpert- Positive Results, n (%)

13.(16.7)

7(14.9)

6.(21.1)

Abbreviation: M: Mean; SD: Standard Deviation; MD: median; IQR: Inter-quartile Range

据报道,Covid-19引起肾上腺功能不全。例如,根据题为“2019年冠状病毒疾病的肾上腺功能不全的出版物:在2020年8月发表的案例报告”,这提出了这一点Covid-19患者develop sepsis and they are likely to develop vasopressor-resistant hypotension that is one of the cause leads to adrenal insufficiency. This has been reported that cancer, hemorrhage, thrombosis, autoimmune issues and infection among other cause leads to sepsis development and enhances the cortisol demand in the body which results to adrenal insufficiency. Moreover the data provided also concluded that excessive production of interleukins and TNF factors influences the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis that in turn leads to decreased production of ACTH and impairment of ACTH function and angiotensin function on adrenal cells. Moreover this has also been reported that that an older member of the Coronaviridae family produces a certain kind of amino acid which mimicks the host ACTH and causes host body to produce antibody against the ACTH peptide that again causes adrenal insufficiency.

This, thus suggests that patients infected with COVID-19 are subjected to adrenal insufficiency especially due to development of vasopressor-resistant hypotension.

据报道,老年人和人们预先存在的医疗病症如糖尿病,哮喘等更容易受到盛行的Covid-19。此外,在任何年龄的个体中,acth缺乏症也据报道,但最有可能在30至50岁之间的老年人群中发生。因此,随着GERIANTRIC人群的升高,COVID-19预期增加和可能增强肾上腺功能不全的病例。

肾上腺功能不全是全球人口中死亡的主要原因之一,报告每年每年0.5例每年0.5患者。

图:1肾上腺障碍(2002-2017)中的美国人口

Covid-19对制药行业的矛盾缺乏影响

The rising patient population suffering from Addison diseases (a complication associated with ACTH deficiency) also enhancing the demand of effective therapy for treatment of ACTH deficiency.

作为普遍存在adrenal gland disorder在全世界的若干地区越来越多,为在Covid-19的普遍流行病中提供适当的药物和先进治疗的患者是很重要的,这就是制药公司和政府正在采取几个步骤的原因,以处理麻烦的情况。

PRICE IMPACT

As no treatment has been discovered yet for coronavirus, the fear of getting infection led the people to remain safe at their home, as a result of which various businesses around the world is suffering a lot involving pharmaceutical companies among others.

acth缺乏可以通过施用氢化可的松或泼尼松龙来治疗,含有皮质类固醇。包括Breckenridge Pharmaceutical,Inc。,Hikma Pharmaceuticals PLC,PFizer,Inc。,Mylan Pharmaceuticals,Inc。等几个市场参与者以及Sandoz,Inc。以及享有先进产品和疗法的制造,以便患有患者人口引领正常和奢华的生活。随着通用氢化鞘和泼尼松可在市场上提供,大量患者群体依赖于它们的成本效益。

据报道,在Covid-19大流行期间,这种药物达到了价格上涨。氢化体和泼尼松龙已在NHS类别下分类,目前正在遇到对制造和价格的政府控制。药物类A涉及33种产品,包括氢化可源酮,苯妥汀和硝化urantoin等。根据NHS提供的数据,这些药物在大流行期间经历了价格上涨,因为在这些时代在卫生服务受到巨大的财政压力下,为疫苗开发提供资金和财务帮助,以反对现行Covid-19的疫苗开发的特定关注。在Covid大流行期间,氢化可源性药物的价格增加了671%至602%。

The news published by Xtelligent Healthcare Media, LLC in July 2020 suggested that pharmaceutical companies have raised drug prices during the COVID-19 pandemic with more than 75 percent of drug impacted directly. Corticosteroids are widely used for conducting clinical trials for COVID-19 that led to a shortage of these drugs which led market players to enhance their drug prices. Horizon Pharmaceutical enhanced the price of prednisone by 4.6 percent in 2020 which boosted the drug price to USD 2,762 in February; moreover Par Pharmaceutical enhanced the vasopressin drug price to USD 197 in February.

This, thus signifies that due to increased usage of these drugs for clinical trials of COVID-19 led to drug shortage which is responsible for enhanced drug prices.

IMPACT ON DEMAND

Coronavirus影响了世界各地,并导致了广泛的公司和当地制造工厂。这种锁定和隔离对全球经济活动产生了不利影响。

COVID-19 is expected to be an opportunity for ACTH deficiency market, as the patients having endrocrinological disorders are at an increasing risk of getting COVID-19 infection. Moreover patients grasped with COVID-19 infections are expected to suffer from pituitary gland damage that causes less production or deficiency of ACTH in affected population.

Covid-19感染对内分泌和代谢过程的影响

COVID-19 infection adversely impacts the different endocrine glands/organs. This has been reported that COVID-19 affects the hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction and causes alterations in antidiuretic hormone metabolism. The adrenal gland is also very much susceptible to COVID infections; moreover, the pituitary gland is also likely to get affected by COVID-19 that leads to abnormal secretion of ACTH.

由于Covid-19导致垂体腺体的损害,它最终导致肾上腺腺体的函数破坏,称为肾上腺功能不全。垂体腺体产生Acth激素,其缺乏影响通过肾上腺皮质产生的皮质醇浓度。患有肾上腺功能不全的人们正在增加获得Covid-19感染的风险,因此需要有效的治疗和疗法在大流行中。此外,还建议患者依赖于患有患者缺乏症的患者的氢化可源性。

随着Covid-19感染导致垂体腺体功能的损害,受影响的人口通常会寻找适当的腺体功能。为了控制缺乏症,患者通常依赖于先进的药物和荷尔蒙治疗。

Moreover, corticosteroids have shown a higher potential to reduce the COVID-19 related complications, which is another factor that led to the drug shortage and hence enhanced the overall drug demand.

This suggests that the increasing prevalence of COVID-19 enhances the chances of pituitary gland impairment that leads to a lack of ACTH production. ACTH deficiency leads to adrenal insufficiency among other complications. This thus signifies that COVID-19 is accelerating the demand of the ACTH deficiency market.

IMPACT ON SUPPLY

由于Covid-19锁定顽固,在世界各国政府施加了制裁。各国的这些限制和障碍边界对导致药物制造所需的API供给减少的进出口活动产生了不利影响。

China is considered to be the manufacturing hub of most of the APIs demanded by India among other countries. India and the U.S heavily dependent on China for APIs needed for manufacturing of drugs and therapies.

The U.S largely depends on China and India for 80% of its pharmaceutical APIs supplies. U.S imports approximately 91% of hydrocortisone from China, which is indicated for treatment of ACTH deficiency.

Moreover market players are also experiencing supply chain disruptions amid COVID-19 pandemic.

例如,

  • 根据2020年2月出版的新闻,据报道,由于Covid-19感染的连续传播,并将公司股价降低了3.6%,Mylan NV正在经历毒品短缺。此外,该公司也面临后勤问题,这些问题正在扰乱目的地的药物供应。随着这种辉煌,由于普遍流行的大流行情况,对其制造和供应链能力的影响也面临不利影响。

然而,若干当局正在采用举措,以克服这些挑战。FDA警告说,由于与产品制造延误和中断相关的问题,可能会出现缺乏问题。这就是为什么FDA连续监测药物供应链,以便即使在Covid-19大流行期间也为患者提供有效的药物和疗法。

因此,这意味着由于持续锁定和政府当局的若干限制,公司和患者面临原料供应链的破坏。然而,密切监测供应链,让他们能够打击这种中断。

制造商的战略决策

Collaboration, agreements, strategic initiatives by market players such as Horizon Therapeutics plc, Pfizer Inc., and Mylan NV among others in the ACTH deficiency market will help them to expand their product portfolio and to provide with appropriate solutions to physicians and patients. This in turn will lead to increasing product sales and hence will put a positive impact on overall company’s revenue.

ACTH缺乏治疗药品制造商正在采取这么多的战略决策,以应对当前的Covid-19场景。从事氢化鞘中的制造业的公司正在与其他人之间进行泼尼松,并在其他方面进行采集,以加速药品和设备的发展。

公司已经采取了多种战略举措,以应对电晕病毒情况。例如,

  • 2021年2月,Horizo​​ n Therapeutics PLC签署了收购Viela Bio,Inc。的协议,该公司专注于制造先进和小说疗法,以抗击普遍疾病。此次收购允许该公司加强其现有产品组合,并加快研发活动。此外,这项举措允许公司克服由于Covid-19的影响而导致的不确定性。
  • In January 2021, Hikma Pharmaceuticals PLC signed an acquisition agreement with GlaxosmithKline plc. As per the agreement the company is expected to acquire GlaxosmithKline plc assets of Egypt and Tunisia. This initiative paved the way for the company to boost up its product manufacturing and commercialization capabilities.
  • 2020年1月,Breckenridge Pharmaceutical,Inc。成为一家高度集中在日本仿制药物的研究和开发,生产和商业化的公司的子公司。这项倡议加强了公司的研发活动,并通过与巨型制药公司合作,帮助它在Covid-19大流行期间获得了利润丰厚的增长。

With the increasing demand and increasing sales of hydrocortisone, prednisone among other steroids, are fueling the growth of ACTH deficiency market.

Thus, companies operating in the ACTH deficiency market are adopting several strategies, including collaboration, agreements, market expansion to enhance their business. These strategic decisions by the companies are expected to provide significant opportunities for the market players operating in the ACTH deficiency market.

CONCLUSION

随着Covid-19的大流行导致整个边界的几种限制,但仍然仍然,Acth缺乏治疗药物的制造商可以管理他们的股票。各种制造商允许其制造商在世界各地安全地区的各种制造工厂中远程用于制造氢化体,泼尼松,以及世界各地的制造设施,帮助他们保持连续供应链。此外,通过提高氢化可的松和泼尼松的价格,公司正在获得额外的利润,这是帮助他们打击对整体收入的负面影响。