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The Economic Challenges Created By Covid-19

  • 13天前| Healthcare

    Covid-19对医疗保健行业的健康和健康的影响概览Covid-19在不同行业面前构成了复合挑战,这严重影响了全球市场。然而,它已经提高了涉及健康和健康的公司的增长,因为需要这种产品。健康和健康指的是身体,思想和精神的完全福祉状态。健康和健康行业的一些重要方面包括个人护理/美容,营养,体重管理,健身,预防/个性化医学等。Covid-19最积极影响全球卫生和健康市场。在大流行期间,越来越多的消费者优先考虑他们的心理健康。因此,在这种可怕的时间期间,健康和健康产品为消费者提供了个性化的控制,有助于培养内心平静,并提供大量需要的情绪控制。例如,UCSF承诺在支持福祉期间的UCSF应对和恢复纲领计划我们对大流行的回应。它承认压力,恐惧,焦虑和其他复杂的情绪。Covid-19通过重新确定消费者价值的优先考虑,包括越来越多的健康状况,促进了健康和健康产品的增长。The wellness has become a lifestyle rather than an occasional activity and encompasses many angles of consumer’s daily life.PRICE IMPACT As no treatment has been discovered yet for coronavirus, the fear of getting infection led the people to remain safe at their home as a result of which various businesses around the world are suffering a lot involving health & wellness companies among others.The coronavirus has affected the various regions of the world and caused widespread closure of companies and local manufacturing plants. This lockdown and isolation has adversely impacted the global economic activity.The growing healthcare market comprises hospitals, medical devices, clinical trials, outsourcing, telemedicine, medical tourism, health insurance and medical equipment. Whereas, the wellness market comprises of three segments: nutraceuticals, alternate therapies and fitness and slimming.During the last couple of years, people throughout the world have become more self-aware about the importance of health & wellness. Achieving great mental and physical health entails diving deep into the health & wellness industry.For instance,Rising demand of nutraceuticals with medical benefits have led to increase in tax subjected to 18% by FSSAI making these products considerably more expensive than before.There is currently a shift towards a value-based healthcare market in which price and purchase decisions are based on outcomes. Since the outbreak of COVID-19, the consumers have rapidly shifted their behaviours to both better protect themselves from the virus and adapt to various social distancing requirements.With supplies of many raw materials becoming harder to secure due to the pandemic, the price volatility may not be just a temporary phenomenon. The cost of production has shot up for the manufacturers because of higher input costs, particularly raw materials.The COVID-19 pandemic has declined short-term potential growth opportunities for the health & wellness industry. Moreover, the increasing prevalence of COVID-19 all around the world is responsible for creating a restrained effect on global health & wellness market.At this point, it is hard to approximate the huge costs associated with impact of COVID-19 but it is safe to say the negative financial effect will last for many years.IMPACT ON DEMAND The coronavirus has affected the various regions of the world and caused widespread closure of companies and local manufacturing plants. This lockdown and isolation has adversely impacted the global economic activity.Surge in COVID-19 cases have increased the consumer demand for vitamins, minerals and supplements as customers look to support their immune, health, boost overall wellness and reduce anxiety.The products and services that embrace the principles of prevention and protection may find a stronger relevance among consumers today amid COVID-19 pandemic. During the pandemic, consumers are focusing more and more on necessities and foregoing non-essential luxuries. There has been a surge in demand for immunity-positioned supplements including Ayurveda medicines and products as consumers pursue different ways to combat the virus.For instance,In March 2021, The Economic Times noticed a Substantial increase in demand for natural products because of COVID-19. The pressure of pandemic has led to a big growth in the demand for Ayurveda products.COVID-19 perhaps dictated a bigger shift in the healthcare sector by bringing about a radical change in the way people consumed health supplements. This has led to significant changes in lifestyle. The demand for personal hygiene and homecare products has increased due to the growing awareness among consumers in the wake of COVID-19 pandemic. Manufacturing companies believe that pandemic has made consumers more aware of need to maintain hygiene at personal level as well as home to reduce chances of infection.Thus, COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a slight shift in the paradigm of what we consider to be essential.IMPACT ON SUPPLY The COVID-19 situation has led to overall disrupted supply chains for every market. The sudden outbreak of COVID-19 and its subsequent impact on restrictions on trade and movement of goods has resulted in shut down of vast portions of the global economy resulting in disrupted supply chains due to limited materials and workforce and slowdown or stopping of manufacturing.Before COVID-19, manufacturing supply chains were extremely effective but concentrated. Coronavirus has significantly transformed every aspect of the global supply chain across industries.However, there are three main adverse effects of supply chain disruptions in the health & wellness sector which impact on new product launches, impact on manufacturing units and impact on marketing and communication channel.For instance,Poppi, a brand of functional prebiotic soda infused with apple cider vinegar was poised to make its debut at the show. The company was previously known as Mother Beverage and intended to unveil its new brand identity and sodas at Expo West. The cancellation of Expo West amid COVID-19 have resulted in devastating effects for several companies who were in process of rolling out new products before the outbreak.STRATEGIC DECISIONS BY MANUFACTURERS The companies are undertaking strategic initiatives such as new product development and venture capital investment for creating greater opportunities in both developed and developing countries and expanding their product portfolio.For instance,P&G, the world’s largest consumer goods company bought the vitamins and supplements business of pharmaceutical group Merck for USD 4.20 billion in 2018.The instant impact from COVID-19 has quickened the execution of virtual trial-related technology. However, to overcome the provocation caused by COVID-19 to clinical development, bolder and more metamorphic changes must be executed in a structured way by visionary industry leaders.Thus, the companies operating in health & wellness market are embracing several strategies including new product development, venture capital investment, strategic collaborations and agreements and product portfolio expansion. These strategic decisions by the companies are anticipated to provide new opportunities for the market players operating in global health & wellness market. CONCLUSIONThe COVID-19 pandemic has led to restrictions all across the borders which led to disruptions in supply chains. However, the rising demand for health & wellness products led to an increase in the market. Moreover, various types of strategic initiatives taken by market players will help to provide new opportunities in the industry.Now, as the instant crisis transform into a semi-permanent state, health & wellness companies and sponsors need to take steps to work around the virus.

  • 13天前|半导体和加热器tronics

    Covid-19对半导体和电子Inclactics的影响对Covid-19对市场的影响的影响 - 2019年中国震中的大流行始于世界各地的震中,迄今为止已在全球范围内连续传播,到目前为止,迄今为止已受到影响与covid-19。此外,世界卫生组织(世卫组织)宣布Covid-19爆发,2012年3月11日的大流行病。Covid-19对全球范围内的经济产生了不利影响,导致全球经济衰退。许多公司受到严格对员工撒谎的行动,闭嘴的小企业正在扣上制造设施。由于物流和制造设施的限制,许多行业供应链的供应链受到了干扰。此外,经济的放缓降低了个人的支出能力,人们正在为紧急情况省钱。由于制造设施,建筑工地,酒店,化学实验室和其他人,全球除尘器市场已逐步减少需求。在Covid-19的初期,建设是由于对遥远的工作,合同义务和劳动力,项目延误和其他人的缺乏的强烈采用而受到严重打击的行业之一。这进一步影响了几个行业的尘埃提取器的需求,因为大流行已经迫使所有建筑活动停止了几个月,从而影响了尘埃提取器市场增长。然而,在制药和医疗保健等行业中,已经注意到了对粉尘提取器的逐步增加。Covid-19的治疗方法和政府举措加强市场相关 - 19次爆发,影响了进一步影响经济和社会的个人和市场的行为。 The companies that want to recover from the pandemic crisis would need to be digitally stable, understand the customer needs and respond to the rapidly changing market.Since the COVID-19 occurrence, majority of the pharmaceutical companies have been continuously working on new medicines and drugs which has also led to higher generation of toxic waste and dust that can be harmful for workers. This situation has boosted the use of industrial dust extractors. Since the pandemic and lockdown, dust extractors are finding more use across industries in order to get rid of contaminants and live in a hygienic environment. The growing need among industries to maintain hygiene levels in the premises and with health facilities and hospitals trying to following hygiene standards following the COVID-19, it is expected that the industrial dust extractor market can advance at a better rate.Furthermore, it has been noted that following the novel coronavirus, the health awareness among people has increased tremendously. This is expected to result in massive demand for industrial dust extractors across mineral grinding, abrasive media manufacturing, carbon black industry and others. Therefore, dust extractors have emerged as one of the best solutions for those who are prone to lung infections, thereby benefitting the global market.STRATEGIC DECISIONS FOR MANUFACTURERS AFTER COVID-19 TO GAIN COMPETITIVE MARKET SHARE As the COVID-19 crisis continues to expand, the manufacturers faced challenges on varied fronts. Production firms would be searching for immediate measures and solutions to keep their workforces and staff safe and continue their businesses smoothly.Software developer needs to focus on updating and developing technologies which promotes automation in the construction process to ensure safety and boost the sales. Manufacturers were engaged in product development with advanced technologies, partnerships and acquisitions to gain competitive advantage in the market.For instance,In April 2020, Finegear launched an advanced dust collector that has a few appealing features. It can generate experimental and vintage effects and also produce both aggressive and warm tones.In January 2019, DEWALT announces the launch of universal dust extractor (DWH161) and SDS+ dust extraction tube kit (DWH200) at World of Concrete 2019. The product offers portable and convenient OSHA Table 1-compliant solutions for dust collection. These DEWALT dust extractors come in onboard, stationary and portable with cordless and corded varieties available. It is an OSHA Table 1-compliant cordless, lightweight and highly portable solution optimized for wide range of tools and applications including SDS+ rotary hammers for drilling and chipping, percussion hammer drills, drywall cutout tools, sanders, routers and jig saws.IMPACT ON PRICEThe COVID-19 lockdown imposed by the government of the countries had impacted the prices of dust extractors. The pandemic is expected to bring increased demand of dust extractors amongst industries and disruption in supply chain which highly impacted the prices of dust extractors and tools. Moreover, increased concern toward health and dust-free environment is likely to impact the pricing of dust extractor market.IMPACT ON DEMAND The post-pandemic scenario is boosting the demand for dust extractor and services owing to increased focus of the healthcare, pharmaceutical and food and beverage industry towards reduction of dust in the work area. Moreover, for all the ongoing and shutdown projects, designers, contractors, construction managers and architects need to perform all the duties with COVID-19 regulations and restructure the costs and profits. This would result in increased demand for dust extractors in order to provide safe working environment for everyone.IMPACT ON SUPPLY CHAINThe supply chain was adversely affected as the lockdown prevailed in many regions globally. The companies are making their operation work according to the government regulations such as limiting the workforce and increasing the work shifts. However, now there is an improvement in the supply chain as most of the facilities have opened and working in the most optimum capacity. A slowdown in manufacturing facilities has highly impacted the supply chain of dust extractor industry but with automation and digitization of various processes, the industry is expected to normalize very soon.CONCLUSION The pandemic has accelerated the need for dust extractors in most of the sectors. The dust extractor market is expected to show a growth in coming days as COVID-19 has forced to implement norms of social distancing and work in smoother manner. Some of the planning steps include:Industrial dust collector manufacturers continuously coming up new and advanced products with better and more appealing features, the market is bound to perform better in coming yearsGrowing concerns toward safe and hygienic working environment is expected to result in increased growth of the marketChange in hygiene protocols and standards to create new opportunities for the dust extractor marketThe manufacturers were focusing towards partnerships and collaborations to meet the increasing demand in the COVID-19 outbreak. Government’s decisions of digitization, automation and safe working environment are also boosting the dust extractor market.

  • 13天前|半导体和加热器tronics

    Covid-19对半导体和电子Inclactics and Electronics Industic分析对Covid-19对市场的影响的影响,2019年在中国的震中开始了大流行,从而稳步扩大到世界各地,到目前为止,到目前为止,到目前为止,到目前为止,达到了世界各地的世界216个国家和地区have been affected with COVID-19, the U.S. being on the top with cases reaching to around 4.38 million led by Brazil, India and then by several European countries such as Russia, Spain, Italy and others. The COVID-19 cases reaching to the big named countries with strong dominance in the global market which has adversely affected the economy globally. The spread of coronavirus has led to the global recession, many companies are being bound to take stringent actions of laying of their employees, small business are being shut and manufacturing facilities are being put on hold. There has been a disruption in supply chain of many industries due to restriction in logistics and closing of manufacturing facilities. In addition, the slowdown in economy has lowered the spending capability of individuals and people are saving money for emergencies. The pandemic has impacted the growth of compost turning market and has noted a decrease in the demand due to lockdown and COVID-19 norms as many manufacturing, agriculture and construction sectors were closed due to lockdown and governmental norms due to which there is a reduction in the industrial waste which reduces the demand for compost turning machines. This COVID-19 shifted focus towards health and environmental concerns resulting to the need to deal with surplus produce throughout the food system, leaving many with a huge burden of on-farm waste. Directly, this will impact the use of compost turning.IMPACT ON DEMAND AND SUPPLY CHAINThe pandemic has brought a huge drop in sales for the compost turning market as the lockdown prevailed in most of the regions. The lockdown led to shutdown of manufacturing, agriculture and construction sectors. The lockdown led manufacturers and consumers to completely stop the processes for few months. The demand for compost turning market faced drastic downfall due to shut down of various manufacturing, agriculture and construction industry which reduces the industrial waste. However, the things are getting normal day-by-day, government is taking initiatives to unlock business step by step. Post COVID-19, the compost turning market may see an increased demand.The pandemic also has a significant effect on the supply chain of compost turning facilities. Logistics and the transport of assets have degenerated a great deal. The supply chain has been adversely affected as the lockdown has occurred internationally in many countries and the government has reduced the workforce. The companies are doing business in accordance with government policies by requiring limited employees work in separate shifts. However, there is now an increase in the supply chain as most of the facilities and travel restrictions have opened and operated at the most optimal capacity.LONG TERM STRATEGY ADOPTED BY MANUFACTURERS OR STEPS TAKENIf the COVID-19 crisis begins to spread, it will be likely for creators to face problems on variety of fronts. Producing companies must seek urgent action to keep their employees safe and their businesses sound. Makers will have to be forced to look at their economic feasibility from the far side. If the COVID-19 pandemic intensifies, it is likely for manufacturers to face continued pressure on demand, productivity and revenues. They will face ongoing cash-flow liquidity problems and difficulties in managing debt obligations. The pandemic has boosted the growth of compost turning market. Thus, the manufacturers, developers and providers were focusing towards strategic decisions as partnerships, acquisitions, product launches, mergers and collaborations to meet the increasing demand in the COVID-19 outbreak.For instance,In January 2021, NCR Corporation announced acquisition of Freshop. Through this acquisition, the company is planning to add e-commerce to their retail core point-of-sale platform. This integration will give retailers the ability to deploy buy-online and pickup in store capabilities to serve their customer’s needs. This will help the company to enhance their offerings and to better meet consumer’s demand.In September 2020, NCR Corporation collaborated with Microsoft to power NCR Digital Connected Services (DCS). Under this collaboration, NCR’s Digital Connected Services Internet of Things (IoT) management software will run on Azure IoT AI technology. Through this, NCR’s retail, restaurant and banking customers will gain IoT monitoring and managed services solution. This has helped the company to enhance their offerings and to better meet consumers changing demand.In April 2020, China government introduced digital currency, digital yuan in four cities to become the world’s first cashless society. The digital yuan is a currency as normal cash but in the form of code in a digital wallet backed by the People’s Bank of China. This urges the retailers to adopt digital payment options and thus impacts the compost turning market.CONCLUSION From the above analysis, it is evident that the compost turning market is observing a huge downfall and low demand due to the COVID-19 governmental social norms as shutdown of facilities. Post COVID-19, when facilities reopen, we will found slightly increase in the demand amongst the customers. Manufacturers were focusing towards partnerships and collaborations to meet the losses in the COVID-19 outbreak. Organizations operating under this market need to build up new strategies to boost the compost turning market growth.

  • 13天前|半导体和加热器tronics

    Covid-19对航空器地面设备的影响和电子InformancicsCoronavirus病在全球范围内创造了一个大流行情景,直到直到日期,人类的补救措施或疫苗每天都没有确定。对人类生命的日益增长和无法控制的影响是阻碍了经济体系。政府已经采取了锁定形式的预防措施,以减轻感染的风险并控制病毒的爆发。空运很小,但它是任何国家经济的一个组成部分。它依赖于几个上游部门,支持航空运输,飞机制造和租赁和租赁服务的活动。Covid-19危机,旅行限制和随后的经济危机之后的乘客行为的变化导致航空服务需求急剧下降,导致地面支持设备市场的下降。A large portion of the ground handling industry has already been negatively affected, as airline passenger traffic plummeted and demands for ground services declined.For instance, the U.S. passengers count have decreased more than 96 percent since March 1st, 2020 due to government restrictions on travelling, which has affected the aviation industry and the ground support equipment services. As a result, as of May 2020, the market for new and used ground support equipment is fragile with no activity as the airline companies had shut down their operations due to government restrictions.AFTERMATH STRATEGIES FOR AIRCRAFT GROUND SUPPORT EQUIPMENT MARKET AND GOVERNMENT ROLEThe COVID-19 created a significant impact on manufacturing operations as the government of various countries highlighted the importance of health and safety, which increased the demand for intelligent solutions in manufacturing operations. Many strategic decisions are taken by companies, such as partnerships and new product development to boost ground support equipment. The government plays an important role as the restrictions on travelling has been relaxed and the airline companies are resuming their operations and ground support equipment services have also been renewed.For instance,Wollard International and ThorDrive have announced a strategic alliance that will produce fully autonomous ground support equipment. These autonomous tractors will operate using LIDAR sensors and camera vision and recognize the familiar objects from the environment, such as aircraft, wing-walkers and other objects. This strategic alliance for developing technologically advanced products will sure enhance market growth.The COVID-19 created a significant impact on manufacturing operations as the government of various countries highlighted the importance of health and safety, which increased the demand for intelligent solutions in manufacturing operations. Many strategic decisions are taken by companies, such as partnerships and new product development to boost ground support equipment. The government plays an important role as the restrictions on travelling has been relaxed and the airline companies are resuming their operations and ground support equipment services have also been renewed.For instance,Wollard International and ThorDrive have announced a strategic alliance that will produce fully autonomous ground support equipment. These autonomous tractors will operate using LIDAR sensors and camera vision and recognize the familiar objects from the environment, such as aircraft, wing-walkers and other objects. This strategic alliance for developing technologically advanced products will sure enhance market growth.OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE MARKET IN COVID-19 SITUATIONThe other opportunities have arisen in the absence of passenger travel, such as escalating importance of cargo used for consumer goods, pharmaceuticals and medical supplies, which boosted the ground equipment services.For instance,AVRO GSE, has a product called GSE telematics which has revolutionized the ground handling industry by helping ground handlers cut costs and enhanced safety. GSE telematics' benefit is that it helps managers effectively manage their team by increasing safety. The airline industry is trying to reduce costs by introducing new products such as electric ground support equipment. The introduction of new electric GSE has revolutionized ground operations by providing a cleaner environment and energy-efficient technology.STRATEGIC DECISIONS FOR MANUFACTURERS AFTER COVID-19 TO GAIN COMPETITIVE MARKET SHAREThe companies have taken many strategic decisions to advantage the marketplace their market share after COVID-19. The heavy investments were finished in R&D to leverage the technological advancements in aircraft ground support equipment market. Developing New SolutionThe U.S. based MAK controls had successfully delivered 30TR customized ACU for Boeing company for their CH-47 F Chinook helicopter. This new product development by the companies will surely boost the market for ground support equipment market.Offer New Services to Manage the Aircraft Ground Support EquipmentThe companies are trying to offer new product and services to the customers with new product development. By maximizing the operational opportunities to minimize fuel usage and emissions from the ground support equipment market, the companies offer new services.Other Growth Opportunities for Market Players to Pursue in 2020Stronger collaboration in the supply chain process and more focus on risk management and supply chain resiliency are the aircraft ground support equipment market's main drivers. This also includes disruptions can be detected on time, close cooperation with supplier and distributors so alternative supply routes can be found on an emergency with a good incident response plan. Strategic alliance, partnerships, and new product developments are the market players' growth opportunities to regain their market share.covid-19-impact-on-aircraft-ground-equipment-in-semiconductors-and-electronics-industryPRICE IMPACTThe COVID-19 lockdown imposed by the countries' governments had adversely impacted transportation prices due to the implementation of social distancing. The prices of the equipment have increased due to an increase in operational cost and transportation cost.IMPACT ON DEMANDThe demand for transport has declined as people were restricted from travelling, which has ultimately affected the aircraft ground support equipment. The travelling of passengers has decreased due to government restrictions imposed, reducing the ground support equipment and its services.IMPACT ON SUPPLY CHAINThe COVID-19 pandemic has adversely affected the supply chain market, which ends with the scarcity of supply of components, services which the organizations provided for ground support equipment. The transportation cost has also increased due to the COVID-19 pandemic, which has also affected the operational costs.CONCLUSIONOperational intelligence is an important factor for the ground support equipment to concentrate on as they should be aware of potential failures they happen. The aircraft ground support equipment running in an open environment should be equipped with geolocation sensors that will help tackle accidents and mishaps. Automation will ultimately help in tackling mishaps and also for the betterment of human life. The new product developments and new service launch by the companies are boosting the market growth. The launch of autonomous ground support equipment will help in increased safety and reduced costs.

  • 18 days ago| Pharmaceutical

    Covid-19对药业缺陷的影响,制药工业的缺陷Covid-19 Pandemic在不同类型的行业面前构成了几种挑战,这对全球经济严重影响了。由于持续的大流行引起的锁定导致了制造和供应活动的破坏,这些活动已经颠簸了颠簸的药物部门等。具有更深的口袋的较大的球员能够在这种大流行情况下弥补自己,然而,由于缺乏足够的资本,收入来源和禁止进出口活动,较小的公司在其他几个因素中禁止进出口活动,较小的公司在压力下弥补了压力。由制药商进行影响,促进了促进了另一项药物市场的增长所需的研发活动。据报道,Covid-19对SARS-COV-2病毒引起的肾上腺腺COVID-19的影响不仅会影响主要respiratory parts but also affects the other body organs and hinders the body’s metabolic process which leads to life-threatening diseases.Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is produced and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland and is also called serum ACTH, corticotropin among others. ACTH is responsible for maintaining the level of cortisol hormone which is regulated by the adrenal gland. Insufficient ACTH production leads to adrenal malfunctions and pituitary tumors. Decreased production of ACTH has also been reported to cause adrenal insufficiency which results in nausea, anorexia, weight loss among others.The below table demonstrates the amount of different cellular molecules in normal person and person suffering from adrenal insufficiency.Table: 1 Laboratory Findings of Patients with Adrenal Sufficiency Vs. Those with Adrenal InsufficiencyClinical/Laboratory DataOverall TotalAdrenal SufficiencyAdrenal InsufficiencyBaseline Serum Cortisol Levels (mmol/L), MD (IQR)398.0473.0255.0Post-Injection Serum Cortisol Levels (mmol/L), MD (IQR)537.0606.0425.5Δ Serum Cortisol Levels (mmol/L) M±SD147.3 ± 122.7150.2 ± 117.0142.1 ± 142.1Sodium (mmol/L), MD (IQR)135.0135.0137.0Potassium (mmol/L), M± SD3.99 ± 0.776.0 ± 2.95.5 ± 1.8Fasting serum Glucose (mmol/L), MD (IQR)5.1 (4.6, 6.1)5.5 (4.7, 6.4)4.9 (4.4, 5.5)CD4 count MD (IQR)187.0(42.0, 565.0)125.5(29.0, 456.0)197.0(44.0, 713.0)Lipoarabinomannan (LAM), MD (IQR)1.0(1.0, 1.0)1.0(1.0, 1.0)1.0(1.0, 1.0)GeneXpert- Positive Results, n (%)13 (16.7)7 (14.9)6 (21.1)Abbreviation: M: Mean; SD: Standard Deviation; MD: median; IQR: Inter-quartile RangeCOVID-19 has been reported to cause adrenal insufficiency. For instance, as per the publication entitled “Adrenal insufficiency in coronavirus disease 2019: a case report” published in August 2020, this has been suggested that COVID-19 patients develop sepsis and they are likely to develop vasopressor-resistant hypotension that is one of the cause leads to adrenal insufficiency. This has been reported that cancer, hemorrhage, thrombosis, autoimmune issues and infection among other cause leads to sepsis development and enhances the cortisol demand in the body which results to adrenal insufficiency. Moreover the data provided also concluded that excessive production of interleukins and TNF factors influences the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis that in turn leads to decreased production of ACTH and impairment of ACTH function and angiotensin function on adrenal cells. Moreover this has also been reported that that an older member of the Coronaviridae family produces a certain kind of amino acid which mimicks the host ACTH and causes host body to produce antibody against the ACTH peptide that again causes adrenal insufficiency.This, thus suggests that patients infected with COVID-19 are subjected to adrenal insufficiency especially due to development of vasopressor-resistant hypotension.This has been reported that the older people and people having pre-existing medical conditions such as diabetes, asthma among others are more vulnerable to prevailing COVID-19. Moreover, ACTH deficiency has also been reported among individuals of any age but most likely to occur among geriatric population aged between 30 to 50 years. Hence with the rising geriatric population the COVID-19 infection expected to increase and likely to enhance the cases of adrenal insufficiency.Adrenal insufficiency is one of the leading causes of mortality among worldwide population with reported cases of 0.5 per 100 patients per year.Figure: 1 Adrenal Gland Disorders (2002-2017) Among U.S PopulationThe rising patient population suffering from Addison diseases (a complication associated with ACTH deficiency) also enhancing the demand of effective therapy for treatment of ACTH deficiency.As the prevalence of adrenal gland disorder is increasing across several regions worldwide it has become important to provide patients with proper medicines and advanced therapies during the prevailing pandemic of COVID-19, this is the reason why pharmaceutical companies and government are taking several steps in order to deal with cumbersome condition.PRICE IMPACTAs no treatment has been discovered yet for coronavirus, the fear of getting infection led the people to remain safe at their home, as a result of which various businesses around the world is suffering a lot involving pharmaceutical companies among others.ACTH deficiency can be treated by administration of hydrocortisone or prednisolone which are corticosteroids. Several market players including Breckenridge Pharmaceutical, Inc., Hikma Pharmaceuticals plc, Pfizer, Inc., Mylan Pharmaceuticals, Inc., and Sandoz, Inc., among others are engaged in the manufacturing of advanced products and therapies so that the suffering patient population can lead a normal and lavish life. As generic hydrocortisone and prednisolone are available in the market, a large patient population relies on those due to their cost-effectiveness.This has been reported that during the pandemic of COVID-19 such drugs have met a price hike. Hydrocortisone and prednisolone have been categorized under Category A by NHS and are currently encountering no governmental controls over the manufacturing and price. Drug category A involves 33 products including hydrocortisone, phenytoin, and nitrofurantoin among others. As per the data provided by NHS these drugs have experienced a price hike during the pandemic due to particular concern in these times when health services are under immense financial pressures to provide funds and financial help for vaccine development to fight against the prevailing COVID-19. During the COVID pandemic, the price of hydrocortisone drugs increased by 671% to 602%.The news published by Xtelligent Healthcare Media, LLC in July 2020 suggested that pharmaceutical companies have raised drug prices during the COVID-19 pandemic with more than 75 percent of drug impacted directly. Corticosteroids are widely used for conducting clinical trials for COVID-19 that led to a shortage of these drugs which led market players to enhance their drug prices. Horizon Pharmaceutical enhanced the price of prednisone by 4.6 percent in 2020 which boosted the drug price to USD 2,762 in February; moreover Par Pharmaceutical enhanced the vasopressin drug price to USD 197 in February.This, thus signifies that due to increased usage of these drugs for clinical trials of COVID-19 led to drug shortage which is responsible for enhanced drug prices.IMPACT ON DEMANDThe coronavirus has affected the various regions of the world and caused widespread closure of companies and local manufacturing plants. This lockdown and isolation has adversely impacted the global economic activity.COVID-19 is expected to be an opportunity for ACTH deficiency market, as the patients having endrocrinological disorders are at an increasing risk of getting COVID-19 infection. Moreover patients grasped with COVID-19 infections are expected to suffer from pituitary gland damage that causes less production or deficiency of ACTH in affected population.THE IMPACT OF COVID-19 INFECTION ON ENDOCRINE AND METABOLIC PROCESSCOVID-19 infection adversely impacts the different endocrine glands/organs. This has been reported that COVID-19 affects the hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction and causes alterations in antidiuretic hormone metabolism. The adrenal gland is also very much susceptible to COVID infections; moreover, the pituitary gland is also likely to get affected by COVID-19 that leads to abnormal secretion of ACTH.As COVID-19 leads to impairment of pituitary gland function it ultimately leads to disruption of the function of the adrenal gland that is known as adrenal insufficiency. The pituitary gland produces ACTH hormone, a deficiency of which affects the concentration of cortisol produced by the cortex of the adrenal gland. People suffering from adrenal insufficiency are at increased risk of acquiring COVID-19 infections, hence demand effective treatment and therapies amid the pandemic. Moreover, patients are also recommended to rely on hydrocortisone injection prescribed to patients suffering from ACTH deficiency.As COVID-19 infection leads to impairment of pituitary gland function, the affected population usually looks for proper gland functioning. In order to control ACTH deficiency, the patients usually rely on advanced medicines and hormonal therapies.Moreover, corticosteroids have shown a higher potential to reduce the COVID-19 related complications, which is another factor that led to the drug shortage and hence enhanced the overall drug demand.This suggests that the increasing prevalence of COVID-19 enhances the chances of pituitary gland impairment that leads to a lack of ACTH production. ACTH deficiency leads to adrenal insufficiency among other complications. This thus signifies that COVID-19 is accelerating the demand of the ACTH deficiency market.IMPACT ON SUPPLYDue to obstinate COVID-19 lockdown, sanctions have been imposed by governments of several countries across the world. These restrictions and barriers across countries borders adversely impacted the import and export activities that have led to a decrease in supply of APIs needed for drug manufacturing.China is considered to be the manufacturing hub of most of the APIs demanded by India among other countries. India and the U.S heavily dependent on China for APIs needed for manufacturing of drugs and therapies.The U.S largely depends on China and India for 80% of its pharmaceutical APIs supplies. U.S imports approximately 91% of hydrocortisone from China, which is indicated for treatment of ACTH deficiency.Moreover market players are also experiencing supply chain disruptions amid COVID-19 pandemic.For instance,As per the news published on February 2020, this has been reported that Mylan NV is experiencing drug shortage due to continuous spread of COVID-19 infections and lowered the company shares by 3.6%. Moreover the company is also facing logistical issues which are disrupting the drug supplies to destination. Along with this Pfizer is also facing adverse impact on its manufacturing and supply chain capabilities due to prevailing pandemic situations.However several authorities are adopting initiatives in order to overcome such challenges. FDA warned that drugs shortage can occur due to problems associated with product manufacturing delays and discontinuation. This is why FDA is continuously monitoring the drug supply chain so as to provide patients with effective drugs and therapies even during the COVID-19 pandemic.This thus signifies that due to continuous lockdown and several restrictions by government authorities the companies and patients are facing disruption of supply chain for raw materials. However close monitoring of supply chain allowing them to combat such disruptions.STRATEGIC DECISIONS of MANUFACTURERSCollaboration, agreements, strategic initiatives by market players such as Horizon Therapeutics plc, Pfizer Inc., and Mylan NV among others in the ACTH deficiency market will help them to expand their product portfolio and to provide with appropriate solutions to physicians and patients. This in turn will lead to increasing product sales and hence will put a positive impact on overall company’s revenue.ACTH deficiency treatment drug manufacturers are taking so many strategic decisions in order to cope up with the current scenario of COVID-19. The companies engaged in manufacturing of hydrocortisone, prednisone among others are collaborating, opting acquisition among others so as to accelerate the development of medicines and devices.Companies have already taken several kinds of strategic initiatives in order to cope up with the corona virus situation. For instance,In February 2021, Horizon Therapeutics plc signed an agreement for acquisition of Viela Bio, Inc., a company focused on manufacturing of advanced and novel therapies to fight against the prevailing diseases. This acquisition allowed the company to strengthen its existing product portfolio and to accelerate the research and development activities. Moreover this initiative allowed the company to overcome the uncertainty arose due to COVID-19 impact.In January 2021, Hikma Pharmaceuticals PLC signed an acquisition agreement with GlaxosmithKline plc. As per the agreement the company is expected to acquire GlaxosmithKline plc assets of Egypt and Tunisia. This initiative paved the way for the company to boost up its product manufacturing and commercialization capabilities.In January 2020, Breckenridge Pharmaceutical, Inc. became the subsidiary of Towa Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., a company highly focused on research and development, production and commercialization of generic drugs in Japan. This initiative strengthened the company research and development activities and helped it to attain a lucrative growth during the COVID-19 pandemic by working with a giant pharmaceutical company.With the increasing demand and increasing sales of hydrocortisone, prednisone among other steroids, are fueling the growth of ACTH deficiency market.Thus, companies operating in the ACTH deficiency market are adopting several strategies, including collaboration, agreements, market expansion to enhance their business. These strategic decisions by the companies are expected to provide significant opportunities for the market players operating in the ACTH deficiency market.CONCLUSIONAs the pandemic of COVID-19 has resulted in several restrictions throughout the borders but still, manufacturers of ACTH deficiency treatment medicines can manage their stocks. Various manufacturers have allowed their manufacturers to work remotely for the manufacturing of hydrocortisone, prednisone among other medicines at various manufacturing facilities across safe regions of the world helping them to maintain a continuous supply chain. Moreover, by raising the price of hydrocortisone and prednisone the companies are gaining extra profit which is helping them to combat the negative effect on overall revenue.


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